e-Conomy SEA is a multi-year research programme launched by Google and Temasek in 2016. Bain & Company joined the programme as lead research partner in 2019. The research leverages primary research, Temasek insights, Bain analysis, Google Trends, expert interviews, and industry sources to shed light on the digital economy in Southeast Asia. The information included in this report is sourced as ‘Google, Temasek and Bain, e-Conomy SEA 2023’, unless otherwise specified.

The information in this report is provided on an ‘as is’ basis. This document was produced by Google, Temasek, Bain and other third parties involved as of the date of writing, and is subject to change. It has been prepared solely for information purposes over a limited period of time to provide a perspective on the market. It is not intended for investment purposes. All financial analysis is derived or estimated by Bain analysis using both non-Google proprietary and publicly available information. Google has not supplied any additional data for financial analysis, nor does Google endorse any financial analysis made in the report. Where information has been obtained from third party sources and proprietary research, this is clearly referenced in the footnotes. Projected market and financial information, analyses, and conclusions contained in this report should not be construed as definitive forecasts or guarantees of future performance or results. Google, Temasek, Bain, their respective affiliates or any other third party involved make no representation or warranty, either express or implied, as to the accuracy or completeness of the information in the report, and shall not be liable for any loss arising from the use of this report.